What is Cesarean Section?

It would be useful for mothers who plan to have a vaginal birth, also known as a normal birth, to have an idea about cesarean birth. Sudden changes in the health of the mother and baby near birth may require changing the planned delivery method. In such an emergency situation, the mother and the healthcare provider may not have time to talk in detail about the cesarean birth. Therefore, all expectant mothers should have basic information about cesarean birth. In this article, issues that mothers are curious about, such as “What is a Caesarean section and what are the harms of a Caesarean section?” are explained.

Caesarean section is a form of birth in which an incision is made in the abdomen and uterus and the baby is taken out. Cesarean delivery method; It is applied to women who may experience birth-related complications, where vaginal birth is not safe, or who have given birth to their previous children via cesarean section.
Situations where cesarean birth is preferred can be listed as follows:

Labour’s failure to progress: Caesarean section is preferred in cases where the cervix (cervix) does not dilate sufficiently for birth despite strong contractions in the mother continuing for hours. Lack of progress in labor is one of the main reasons why cesarean delivery is preferred.

The baby is under stress: A change in the baby’s heartbeat may be a sign that the baby is under stress. Again, the baby’s lack of oxygen puts the baby under stress. In such cases, the doctor may decide that a cesarean section is a better option.

The baby takes an abnormal position in the uterus: As birth approaches, the baby moves into a position where its head is downwards in the uterus. However, some babies may have problems with positioning. In these babies; The foot (breech position) or shoulder (transverse position) may come to the lower part of the uterus, that is, the first body part to come out at birth. Problems in positioning may also cause cesarean delivery to be preferred.

Multiple pregnancy: In multiple pregnancies such as twins and triplets, babies may have problems with positioning. Therefore, cesarean delivery may be a safer option in multiple pregnancies.

Placenta diseases: In cases such as placenta previa, where the placenta is located in the cervix (cervix), cesarean delivery is preferred.

Umbilical cord problems: Caesarean section may be a safer method of birth when problems such as entanglement in the umbilical cord are encountered.

Health problems of the mother: If the mother has a serious disorder in vital organs such as the heart and brain, a cesarean section may be performed. Also, active genital herpes infection in the mother during birth may require a cesarean delivery.

Narrow birth canal: In cases such as hip fracture or large fibroid tissue that will cause narrowing of the birth canal; It may be difficult to give birth vaginally. Again, if the baby’s head or itself is larger than normal, this also makes vaginal birth difficult. In such cases, cesarean delivery may be considered a better option.

Previous cesarean birth: In women who have had a cesarean birth before; Cesarean delivery may be repeated depending on the incision made for the cesarean section and other factors. Although it is not necessary for mothers who had a cesarean section for their first birth to have a cesarean section for other births, in practice, a cesarean section is often repeated.

How is Cesarean Birth Done?
Cesarean birth can be planned in advance or performed under emergency circumstances. The question “At what week does a cesarean section take place?” is frequently asked by expectant mothers. Planned caesareans are usually performed in the 39th week of pregnancy.

Before cesarean delivery, the mother’s suitability for anesthesia is evaluated. Various blood tests are performed to evaluate the mother’s blood type and hemoglobin status. Thanks to these tests, you can be prepared for complications that may occur during cesarean birth.

Before the cesarean section, the mother’s abdomen is cleaned. A vascular access is opened to the mother and the drugs required for the surgery are given to the body. Again, a catheter is inserted into the mother, which allows the bladder to be emptied during the surgery. During cesarean birth, the mother is usually given epidural anesthesia. In this type of anesthesia, anesthetic drugs are administered through the back of the waist and into the space of the membrane surrounding the spinal cord. Thanks to this anesthesia, the mother does not feel pain or suffering during birth.

After the medications required for the surgery are given and the anesthesia effect begins, an incision is made just above the line where pubic hair growth begins. This incision is usually made parallel to the pubic hair line. However, in some cases, the doctor may prefer to make a vertical incision. After this incision in the abdomen, the uterus is reached. After an incision is made in the uterus, the baby inside the uterus is taken out. Thus, after two incisions, the baby is born. During this entire process, the mother’s body is covered from the waist down, thus preventing the mother from seeing these stages.

After the baby is born, its mouth and nose are cleaned, allowing it to breathe, and the umbilical cord is cut. While the baby is given to healthcare professionals to check its vital signs, the incisions on the mother’s body are closed with stitches. The checked baby is given to its mother.
How Long Does a Caesarean Take?
‘How long does a cesarean section take?’ is one of the frequently asked questions. This entire process takes 40-50 minutes under normal conditions.

After birth, the mother and baby must stay in the hospital for a few days.

As the effect of anesthesia disappears after birth, the mother’s pain increases. To prevent this situation, strong painkillers are given to the mother intravenously after birth. The mother is advised to drink plenty of fluids and take walks to avoid problems such as thrombosis (clot formation) and constipation due to surgery. Again, the urinary catheter inserted into the mother should be removed as soon as possible. Both the mother and healthcare professionals should be careful to prevent infection in the surgical area.

When discharged from the hospital, the doctor’s advice should be taken into account. Some different issues may need to be taken into consideration for each mother. However, postpartum recommendations that apply to most mothers are:
Get plenty of rest for a few weeks
consuming plenty of fluids
Abstaining from sexual intercourse for 4-6 weeks
Taking appropriate painkillers when necessary
It can be counted as standing in the right positions to support the abdomen.
Symptoms such as sudden mood swings, inability to enjoy life, and overwhelming fatigue in the days after birth may indicate postpartum depression. It would be useful for people who think they have such symptoms to apply to the nearest health center.

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